Sunday, November 25, 2018

Contemplations on THE ADVENTURES OF AYLMER VANCE by Alice & Claude Askew.

These tales first made their appearance immediately following the start of the First World War. The Aylmer Vance stories were first published in The Weekly Tale-Teller magazine in the 4 July through 22 August 1914 issues. They appeared as “Aylmer Vance: Investigator.” The stories are in line with traditional occult detective works from the decade previous.

Not quite Victorian or Edwardian, but really close.


I was unable to locate any cover images of the relevant issues of The Weekly Tale-Teller to show what they looked like. However, I was able to discover an image of a cover from sometime before (1912) and an image from sometime after (1915). Obviously, there was a major redesign at some point in between.

clip_image00303 February 1912

clip_image00504 September 1915

The first time all of the Aylmer Vance stories appeared together in a collection (to the best of my knowledge) was Aylmer Vance: Ghost Seer, edited by Jack Adrian, published in 1998 by Ash-Tree Press.


The edition under consideration here was published by Black Heath Editions in 2018. Black Heath Editions republishes lesser known works from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for incredibly reasonable prices. I would not have even heard of many of these authors (and their works) had it not been for Black Heath Editions. Thank you.


The eight short tales in this collection are summarized below:

“The Invader”

‘—for it does not do to meddle with the burial places of the primitive dead. It’s an unwise proceeding to have anything to do with an earth-bound soul—a soul whose desires are all of the earth, earthy. And Annie knew this, mark you, and felt it. She was wiser in her generation than George, but just because she was sweet and gentle——’

Vance and an acquaintance of his, the barrister Dexter, meet by chance. Both are staying at the Magpie Inn. They get to talking and upon discovering a mutual interest, Vance agrees to share with Dexter several of his experiences investigating spiritual phenomena. To start, Vance relates an episode from six years prior that convinced Vance to become interested in psychical research. The episode involves Vance’s best friend, George Sinclair and his bride, Annie. In delving into dark and ancient occult secrets, George’s foolishness lead to his devoted wife becoming possessed by a brutal sprit. Vance’s inexperience could not help them, resulting in murder-suicide and Vance is still deeply upset at failing his dear friends.

Later, Vance agrees to share with Dexter another of his psychical experiences if Dexter is still at the inn the following night.

“The Stranger”

‘The great elemental forces, Dexter—why do we no longer believe in them—the old gods and goddesses—the lost faiths? Either we are much wiser than our forefathers, or our forefathers were much wiser than us.’

Of course, Dexter stayed. Dexter’s imagination was captured by Vance’s narration from the night before. So, that evening–a dark and stormy night, no less–they met agreeably. Over a bottle of port, Vance told the tale of Daphne Darrell.

Due to the untimely deaths of her parents, Daphne was raised by her aunt to who adored her. Vance was her guardian. Indulged in almost everything, Daphne grew up wild, unrefined and as beautiful as a woodland nymph. As a child she told Vance that in the nearby woods she had a friend; a tall young man. Years later, engaged to a suitable groom, she confessed to Vance that she loved the strange friend who she still saw, as if in a dream.

On Daphne’s wedding eve, she again confided to Vance that she did not want to get married. She wanted her strange woodland friend. That night, Vance saw her rush off into the forest. Following her, Vance observed her call out. Then the strange woodland friend appeared before Daphne in a bolt of lightning. The next morning Daphne’s body was found.

“Lady Green-Sleeves”

‘“The grave—what have I to do with the grave? I said farewell to my mortal body over a hundred years ago; I have merely clothed myself in my old semblance to come here. I am a spirit—an immortal spirit—and it is not to the grave I am returning, but life—life!”

The next morning, Vance tells Dexter the romantic tale of the ghost, Lady Green-Sleeves. As he tells it, Vance met the Lady at a dress ball in December twelve years past, and thought she was one of the revelers. Later in the evening, Vance catches up to Lady Green-Sleeves and they chat. Uncomfortable with the strange music and dances, Lady Green-sleeves invites Vance visit her parlour in the house. When they arrive a few minutes later, Lady Green-Sleeves’ is delighted with how little it has changed. Again, Vance is confused. Laughingly, he asks if she is a ghost. She replies that she thought he knew!

Vance confesses his love for her. Lady Green-Sleeves is delighted, but she tells him that her “time for love is over.” She makes to leave but Vance begs her to stay, not to return to the grave. She promises that they will meet again, but not in this world. Vance admits to Dexter that is it foolish fancy. Dexter reassures him that they will meet again. Vance holds on to that hope.

“The Fire Unquenchable”

‘I don’t know if you are like me,’ Vance remarked, ‘and care to read when you are in bed. Anyhow, I’d like you to glance through these poems—for I think you will allow they are poems in the strict sense of the word—and let me know in the morning what sort of impression you get from them.’

Still lodging at the Magpie Inn, Vance and Dexter spend the day fishing. As they bade each other good night, Vance handed Dexter a book of poetry written in a woman’s hand. Dexter sensed there was more to this than mere interest in poetry; perhaps this is some kind of test. While reading in bed, Dexter is impressed with the quality of the writing. After some time, he notices that his bedroom is becoming hotter and hotter. Then, he has a vision of a similar room with a woman writing something as if she were in a trance.

The next morning, Dexter finds Vance at breakfast and relates to Vance his visions and experiences from the previous night. Vance is certain that it was not merely a dream, but rather a true vision. Vance tells Dexter how he came to be in possession of the book of poetry and the book’s back-story. And so, they begin to investigate the significance of Dexter’s vision and how it connects with the book. This leads them to uncover a life’s purpose unachieved and the haunting that results. Until at last, with the task completed, love is reunited.

“The Vampire”

Whatever the opinion of the doctors may have been, Aylmer was obviously deeply interested. And yet there was very little to show. The skin was quite intact, and there was no sign of inflammation. There were two red marks, about an inch apart, each of which was inclined to be crescent in shape.

Sometime later, Dexter decides to follow Vance into psychic and occult investigations. As a consequence of this, they now both reside together in Vance’s home, ala Holmes and Watson. Vance teaches Dexter to improve his clairvoyance. And, Dexter acts as a recorder of their experiences; again, ala Holmes and Watson.

They are called to investigate the case of a husband’s serious and mysterious blood loss. The husband, Paul Davenant, bears two scars upon his throat; he is more aware of them on certain mornings when he feels especially lethargic. The greater part the mystery surrounds his wife, Jessica, and her family’s heritage. She believed her family was cursed. This curse would lead to Davenant’s death; a curse that also would be passed on to her children.

The curse of vampirism…

“The Boy of Blackstock”

And I—for a brief moment I was able to see through the open door into the haunted room. And I was dimly conscious of a figure—that of a young man clad in garments of a bygone day, who stood smiling and bowing towards Lord Rystone, his hand upon his heart.

The ‘Mischievous Boy of Blackstock’ had fulfilled his destiny.

Vance and Dexter are called to investigate a “poultergeist” referred to as “The Ghost of Blackstock priory” or “The Mischievous Boy of Blackstock.” The haunting brings back old animosities between the Earl and the local populace, with the Earl crudely believing the people are conspiring to get him to leave.

After spending a single night in the supposedly haunted room, Vance informs Dexter that he has solved the mystery and it does not concern them or require their special talents. However, when the climactic moment arrives, nothing is as it seems.

“The Indissoluble Bond”

He caught her hands in his, those gaunt bony hands, and I saw her tremble at his touch.

‘Our souls belong to each other, Beryl,’ he said. ‘They have belonged to each other through the long dark ages of the past, they will be in harmony through the infinite aeons of futurity. You are mine—shall I prove it to you?’

As he spoke his hands left hers and once more began to press the notes of the organ. Again that strange, weird harmony sprang into being—a call of spirit to spirit—and I could see that Beryl’s eyes were closing dreamingly; then suddenly, with a violent struggle, she seemed to recover herself. In her turn she seized the man’s hands and dragged them from the keyboard.

Then, panting, she closed the lid.

Vance and Dexter are asked to visit the country home of friends who are concerned over their daughter, Beryl—a no nonsense, athletic girl full of life. She seems to be under some form of psychic influence. Thus, Vance turns to Dexter’s clairvoyant skill to investigate. In a vision, Dexter sees Beryl approach a wasted man. The man, the town cathedral’s organist, gave his soul over to his music. The man states to Beryl that their souls are bound together forever.

When this wasted man dies, most believe his hold over Beryl died with him.

They couldn’t be more wrong.

“The Fear”

“And that’s the worst of this hobby of ours,” he added, with a suggestion of sadness in his voice; “for people come to us, as Mr Belliston did, begging for our assistance, and thinking that by some strange mysterious power we can lay the ghosts, or what they are pleased to call the ghosts. But that’s just what we can’t do; we can only prove what has been proved hundreds of times before, that there are more things in heaven and earth than the human philosophy of the present day can understand.

“And again and again I find the same advice recurring—the advice which Somers has given us—the advice of one who has not had the experience of years such as I have had, but which is quite as good as any that I can give—destroy. And that, too, is the advice that applies to Camplin Castle.”

Vance and Dexter look into the reason behind why a wealthy man and his family quit their castle-home (upon which they spent a great deal to make livable) after only a month in residence. It was no ghost or spectral apparition but an overwhelming feeling of fear and dread that drove the family out.

After going there the next day and experiencing “the Fear” for themselves that night, Vance and Dexter realize the background to the castle would reveal the answer. A few days later, they uncover the dark past of the great house.


The authors, Alice and Claude Askew were married in 1900. Their first jointly authored novel was published in 1904. Throughout the years left to them, they would go on to publish over ninety novels, mostly via serials.

clip_image009Alice Askew

clip_image011Claude Askew

By 1915, and as special correspondents for the Daily Express, the couple found themselves attached to a British field hospital supporting allied Serbian military forces. In 1916, they would publish an account of their time as The Stricken Land: Serbia As We Saw It. Having spent lot of time in Serbia, their account was very sympathetic to the Serbian people.

The Askews story ended on the night of October 5-6, 1917.[i] They were both traveling on the Italian passenger steamer Città di Bari, traveling to Corfu, one of the Greek islands.

clip_image013Italian passenger steamer Città di Bari.

During the night, the vessel was struck by a torpedo from the German submarine, UB-48 and sank. Claude’s body was never found. Alice’s body was found three weeks later.


In striving to understand the evolution of Vance and Dexter through the tales, I found that central to each of the stories in this collection is love. Whether it is true love or a corrupted version, love provided the motivating energy in these psychic investigations. The first four tales were narrated by Aylmer Vance to Dexter. Since these tales occurred before Vance’s partnership with Dexter, more in-depth explanation was necessary. These tales were concerned more with melancholy and lost love. The second (and final) four tales were narrated (or recorded) by Dexter as part of being Vance’s recorder of investigations. The fifth and sixth stories in this collection result in somewhat happy endings with evil forces overcome; while the seventh and eighth tales detail Vance’s failures. Personally, I think these final two are the best of the collection.

To carrying the above discussion a little further, one of the traits of the tales I particularly favor is that sometimes Vance could not help all of those who sought his aid. Sometimes he fails and the failure results in tragic death or great misfortune. I am thinking in particular:

  • In the second tale “The Stranger,” Vance could not even save his own ward from a tragic death on the eve of her marriage.
  • In the seventh tale, “The Indissoluble Bond,” Vance was unable to prevent the pitiful death of a friend’s daughter. She died at her own wedding by the hands of an evil man turning into an evil spirit.
  • In the eighth and final tale, The Fear,” Vance and Dexter uncover the mystery of this terror-inducing manor; though it does no good. Vance recommends that it be razed to the ground.


In conclusion, for me, the first story was a slow start leaving me dreading what was in store for me. Therefore, it was quite a surprise to me just how much I enjoyed this collection once I got into it.

It is interesting how I find myself more and more interested in the horror-fiction sub-genre of occult detective stories, particularly stories from the late nineteenth through the early twentieth centuries. Based upon what I have read, I am nowhere near finished with this sub-genre as future posts of this blog will reveal.



Print Resources

Digital Resources

Askew, Alice & Claude. The Adventures of Aylmer Vance. Black Heath Editions. 2018. Kindle Edition.

Online Resources

Contendo, William G., Phil Stephenson-Payne, eds. “Series List: Vance, Aylmer.” The FictionMags Index. 03 August 2018. Web. 17 November 2018.

Reynolds, Josh. “The Nightmare Men: ‘The Ghost Seer.’” Black Gate: Adventures in Fantasy Literature. New Epoch Press. 01 October 2011. Web. 21 November 2018.

Verni, Nico. “4.10.1917, il triste epilogo del piroscafo Città di Bari.” La Voce Del Marinaio. 04 October 2016. Web. 14 November 2018.

Wikipedia contributors. "Alice and Claude Askew." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2018. Web. 21 November 2018.

[i] Some sources say that it was the night of October 4-5, 1917.

Sunday, November 11, 2018


At the conclusion of Order of the Phoenix, Voldemort and his Death Eaters openly attack the Ministry of Magic. There is now no doubt that Voldemort had returned and the Wizarding world was in open war.

The Ministry of Magic finally understands . . . everything Harry and Dumbledore have been saying, regarding the return of Voldemort, is true. Harry and Dumbledore are vindicated.

In Half-Blood Prince, Harry returns to Hogwarts. At Hogwarts, normalcy dominates despite the fact that war rages; beneath this surface of calm, appearances can be deceiving. Moves and counter-moves by forces for Voldemort and by those who oppose him threaten to reduce Hogwarts into a bloody battlefield. Although supernatural elements pervade Half-Blood Prince, it is the terror and horror of war that is most commonly felt and experienced


“We’ve got a problem, Snape,” said the lumpy Amycus, whose eyes and wand were fixed alike upon Dumbledore, “the boy doesn’t seem able —”

But somebody else had spoken Snape’s name, quite softly.

“Severus . . .”

The sound frightened Harry beyond anything he had experienced all evening. For the first time, Dumbledore was pleading.

Snape said nothing, but walked forward and pushed Malfoy roughly out of the way. The three Death Eaters fell back without a word. Even the werewolf seemed cowed.

Snape gazed for a moment at Dumbledore, and there was revulsion and hatred etched in the harsh lines of his face.

“Severus . . . please . . .”

Snape raised his wand and pointed it directly at Dumbledore.

Avada Kedavra!”

A jet of green light shot from the end of Snape’s wand and hit Dumbledore squarely in the chest. Harry’s scream of horror never left him; silent and unmoving, he was forced to watch as Dumbledore was blasted into the air. For a split second, he seemed to hang suspended beneath the shining skull, and then he fell slowly backward, like a great rag doll, over the battlements and out of sight.

An excerpt from page 595/596


J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published in 2005 by Scholastic Press and was the sixth book in the Harry Potter series. Half-Blood Prince was also the third of the large novels and the penultimate volume of the series—only one more to go.

The Sorcerer’s Stone (Book 1), 1997. Page count 309.

The Chamber of Secrets (Book 2), 1999. Page count 341.

The Prisoner of Azkaban (Book 3), 1999. Page count 435.

The Goblet of Fire (Book 4), 2000. Page count 734.

The Order of the Phoenix (Book 5), 2003. Page count 870.

The Half-Blood Prince (Book 6), 2005. Page count 652.

The Deathly Hallows (Book 7), 2007. Page count 759.

The increasing complexity of the multiple plotlines in this book makes the following chronological extract from The Harry Potter Lexicon website a highly useful aid to comprehension and to provide context to the reader.



The Expanded World

Half-Blood Prince opens with two scenes absolutely necessary to further the storyline and explore aspects of the Potterverse we have not seen before. The first scene explored the relationship between the Minister of Magic and the muggle Prime Minister during the previous six Harry Potter books. How the Wizarding community relates to the wider world and the muggle government is very interesting and not something the reader has really seen before. Further, now that fighting has broken out, the impact of the wizard war on the muggle world is described in detail.

The second scene brings the reader into Snape’s home outside of Hogwarts. It was very interesting to see the living space of a Hogwarts’ professor outside of the school environment. His home reflects a solitary life dedicated to scholarship. And, as Snape becomes more and more a crucial character in the storyline, his back-story becomes vital and has to be explored.

Finally in Chapter 2, and as an interesting aside, is Bellatrix’s comment while visiting Snape’s home. She and her sister, Narcissa Malfoy (Draco’s mother), discuss Voldemort’s plan and Draco’s part in it. Narcissa is afraid that Draco has little chance of surviving. Bellatrix has had enough and erupts:

“You should be proud!” said Bellatrix ruthlessly. “If I had sons, I would be glad to give them up to the service of the Dark Lord!”[i]

It is significant to note that Bellatrix states “If I had sons,” and not “If I had children.” The subtle implication here is that Bellatrix did have children, just not sons; daughters, perhaps? The quote above not only presages, but is the entire basis for the plotline for Harry Potter and the Cursed Child. In this work set almost twenty years later, the daughter of Bellatrix and Voldemort, Delphini, returns to avenge her parents and torment Harry Potter and his children.


Well, well.

The Past Instructs

The primary concept lurking behind this section is concerned with the power that Voldemort knows not. Voldemort cannot comprehend love and just how powerful a force it can be. Furthermore, Voldemort’s arrogance leads to his inability to even conceive of his followers betraying him.

Snape’s depth as a character is further explored and even enhanced. Snape’s love for Lily and Voldemort’s role in her death leads to Snape’s becoming Dumbledore’s man. Until the very end of the series, the reader is unsure whether Snape is repentant or not. Is Snape really Dumbledore’s man or as Draco mockingly states: is Dumbledore just a stupid old man who is losing his grip?

In Half-Blood Prince, the readers are introduced to Professor Slughorn, the new potions master. Dumbledore uses him and his hire as a means to enhance understanding of the past. Slughorn’s unique knowledge concerning the historic past is what makes him (in particular his knowledge) vital to the plotline. Only much later is the true reason for his hire revealed.

A major plot driving force throughout Half-Blood Prince is Dumbledore’s reliance upon the magic of the pensieve. It reveals to Harry Voldemort’s origins and background as Tom Riddle. In addition, the pensieve is used to explore the role of the horcrux as an obscene tool of evil. Riddle’s origins, as seen via the pensieve, bear more than a passing resemblance to Harry’s background and origins. The reader is meant to draw parallels between Harry and Riddle/Voldemort. This leads to the philosophical question of whether evil is born or made. Is it nature or nurture?

By the conclusion of Chapter 17, it is strongly suggested that having an understanding of the past goes a long way to making the present very clear. And, this can be used as a powerful weapon to fight evil. Finally (and as a little historic side-note that is alluded to in the special memory provided by Slughorn), Dumbledore and Harry witness Riddle’s and Slughorn’s discussion concerning horcruxes and the magic number. Though never explicitly mentioned in the text, it is highly probable that if Dumbledore had concealed and restricted access to the knowledge of horcruxes, the logical corollary to this is that he knew enough of them to be wary. How did Dumbledore come across such dark knowledge? The implications of this are unsettling.


Hormones are A-Ragin’ — (formerly Hormonal Challenges)

While there were a few hints in the previous novels, it is really in Goblet of Fire that young love makes it first awkward and most disruptive appearance. By the time of Half-Blood Prince, our trio’s love-life has become ferociously complicated.

Leading the chaos is amortentia. At the first day of Slughorn’s potions class, the trio is exposed to the amortentia love potion, which should smell differently depending on what attracts the inhaler. Though little is know of Ron’s olfactory experience, Hermione states:

“and it’s supposed to smell differently to each of us, according to what attracts us, and I can smell freshly mown grass and new parchment and —”

But she turned slightly pink and did not complete the sentence.[ii]

Nor would she ever complete that sentence. However, in a 2007 Bloomsbury Live Chat shortly after the Release of Deathly Hallows, Rowling was asked about that incomplete sentence. Rowling confirmed that it was Ron. She replied: “I think it was his hair. Every individual has very distinctive-smelling hair, don’t you find?”[iii]

Ron and Hermione find themselves caught in a cycle of unreasonable animosity, with no end in sight. Sending each other mixed signals, they hurt each other over and over. Ron’s . . . involvement with Lavendar and Hermione’s harsh words, innuendo and “date” with the foul McCluggen, leave the reader questioning how, or perhaps even if, they will find their way back to each other.

Only with a Deus—ex—machina event is that cycle broken. Thus Ron and Hermione are provided the opportunity to re-discover what they had lost. After all, with a little “luck,” anything is possible.

Now turning to Harry, when he first inhales amortentia, Harry, as usual, is clueless:

. . . a gold-colored cauldron that was emitting one of the most seductive scents Harry had ever inhaled: Somehow it reminded him simultaneously of treacle tart, the woody smell of a broomstick handle, and something flowery he thought he might have smelled at the Burrow.[iv]

Treacle Tart is Harry’s favorite dessert. The smell of broomstick handle is obvious for a quidditch player. But a flowery scent that he smelled at the Burrow? A few pages later, Harry gets his answer. Though naturally he doesn’t recognize it:

. . . he caught a sudden waft of that flowery smell he had picked up in Slughorn’s dungeon. He looked around and saw that Ginny had joined them.[v]

Harry, almost as clueless as Ron but much more oblivious, is torn between his growing attraction and feelings for Ginny and his worry over how this would impact his friendship with Ron. Ron has made very clear how he regards anyone who tries to get together with his little sister.

Harry and Ginny eventually find happiness for a short time before fear compels Harry to push her away for her own good. Tellingly, immediately following Dumbledore’s death, ignoring Hagrid’s urging for Harry to leave Dumbledore’s body, Harry will not. It is only the gentle touch and soft words of Ginny who is able to reach Harry through his grief over Dumbledore’s killing.


Resentment & Anger Issues

Carrying on from a previous post is the theme of resentment and anger Harry feels towards others; mainly Dumbledore and Snape. Harry voices his suspicions concerning Snape to others. No one takes his concerns seriously, even dismissing them. And to make matters worse, Harry is actually correct; as later events will reveal.

Harry’s animosity and suspicion toward Snape, combined with the fact that no one takes his concerns seriously, leads him to behave like a true 16-year-old shit:

“Do you remember me telling you we are practicing nonverbal spells, Potter?”

“Yes,” said Harry stiffly.

“Yes, sir.”

“There’s no need to call me ‘sir,’ Professor.”

The words had escaped him before he knew what he was saying. Several people gasped, including Hermione. Behind Snape, however, Ron, Dean, and Seamus grinned appreciatively.[vi]

When I first read this, I actually laughed out loud.

Later, still fixated on Snape, Harry reiterates to Lupin his strong resolve that Snape, and to a lesser extent Draco Malfoy, is plotting something evil. Lupin cuts through Harry’s attitude to the real crux of his problem. From the book, Lupin says:

“You are determined to hate him, Harry,” said Lupin with a faint smile. “And I understand; with James as your father, with Sirius as your godfather, you have inherited an old prejudice. . .”[vii]

Discovering that it was Snape who overheard the prophecy in part and thus leading directly to the death of his parents, Harry rages against Dumbledore. Especially Dumbledore’s efforts to reconcile Harry to the idea that Snape can be trusted. At the novel’s conclusion, when Snape kills Dumbledore, Harry’s worst fears were made real.


Once again I also listened to the unabridged audiobook narration of Harry Potter

and the Half-Blood Prince. This narration was once again superbly voiced by Jim Dale. And, once again, this greatly enhanced my enjoyment of the novel.



In the opening paragraphs to this essay, I touched upon that nature of horror seen and experienced by the reader in these novels is not of the supernatural variety. After all, the entire wizarding world is supernatural. However, what is experienced by the characters and, by extension, felt by the reader is the anxiety and apprehension of war. War is a kind of horror unto itself.

Keep in mind, the trio are only 16 years old! For them, they may intellectually understand that they could die in pursuit of some goal. This is far different from the real stink of war. Among many other things, war is:

•the death of goodness and innocence.

•those willing to die for a cause they believe in.

•treachery of the presumably loyal.

•blood and the callous disregard for its spilling.


In my previous Harry Potter post covering Order of the Phoenix, I wrote that it was “the last bit of normalcy before the upheaval of war really hits.” It turns out this was not entirely true on the surface. Unfortunately, by the conclusion of Half-Blood Prince, there is no more doubt that war has come. The trio will spend, what should have been their final year at Hogwarts, instead, running for their lives.

Good Evening.




Print Resources

Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. New York: Scholastic Press, 2005. Print

Digital Resources

Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Narrated by Jim Dale, Listening Library (Audio). 2005. Audiobook. CD.

Online Resources

“Audio Book Review: Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.” PWxyz, LLC.Web. 06 November 2018.

Contributors. “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.” Harry Potter Wiki. FANDOM Books Community. 26 September 2018. Web. 02 November 2018.

Haber, David. “The power The Dark Lord knows not.” Beyond Hogwarts. Beyond March 2007. Web. 16 September 2018.

“Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.” The Harry Potter Lexicon. Web. 02 November 2018.

“Interviews – Bloomsbury Live Chat.” The Harry Potter Lexicon. Web. 30 October 2018.

“Jim Dale Talks Recording Half-Blood Prince Audiobook.” The Leaky Cauldron. 23 July 2015. Web. 05 November 2018.

Wikipedia contributors. " Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 21 October 2018. Web. 30 October 2018.

[i] Page 35.

[ii] Page 185.

[iii] Lexicon

[iv] Page 183.

[v] Page 192.

[vi] Page 180.

[vii] Page 333.